Eco-technologies

Green label technologies

In order to provide some more efficient and eco-friendly means of transport, CAF is currently engaged in implementing the “Product Sustainability Function", through the introduction of eco-design methods in the engineering processes in order to optimise and control the environmental impact of the company's products right from the design stage up to the end of the product life cycle.

As a result of this effort, CAF has developed the world's first verified EPD for a tram: the The Urbos Tram for the city of Zaragoza. The environmental impact study on the Zaragoza Tram was quantified through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) based on the ISO 14040 and ISO 14044 standards. An EPD has also been made for the regional train Civity for the region of Friuli Venecia Giulia.

Aerodynamic train design

Eco-Design

Optimised ways of saving energy

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Technicians working with materials

New materials

Lightweight and recyclable

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Detail of the friction between the wheel and track.

Trains free from noise and vibrations

Reduction in noise emissions.

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Tram at a station

Regenerative brake (AER)

An effective energy recovery solution

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Electronic equipment

Latest generation equipment

For maximum performance

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Reduced consumption in auxiliary systems

Reduced consumption

Auxiliary systems:

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Driver's station

Efficient driving

Of vehicles and fleet.

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Commuter trains

Shorter travel times

And greater energy efficiency:

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Eco-Design
Optimised ways of saving energy
Aerodynamic train design

During the design process,CAF's engineering department uses state-of-the-art analysis tools, and simulation and testing systems in order to define and configure the optimal values for each train, with a view to minimising energy consumption whilst running , improving the operation of the train and lengthening its service life.

The shape, space, material, and energy distribution systems are all essential factors in the attainment of the maximum standards of quality and energy efficiency. For this reason, environmental aspects are predominant in the design and the complete equipment of our trains.

CAF takes particular account of prominent factors such as traction energy consumption at high speeds. Thanks to measures such as a sophisticated aerodynamic design, it has been possible to reduce drag during operation and also to reduce the energy demand.

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New materials
Lightweight and recyclable
Technicians working with materials

CAF carefully selects all those materials required for production, placing particular emphasis on recyclability, in order to avoid the consumption of natural resources. Likewise, irreversible connections between different types of materials are avoided in order to facilitate the end-of-life dismantling of the train and material recyclability.

The train design is directed at achieving mass and weight reductions, which is an effective way of optimizing energy demands. These parameters are applied to the carboy structure and also to all the auxiliary equipment and components, insulators, etc. whilst guaranteeing maximum safety standards.

Through the use of more lightweight and resistant materials it is also possible to reduce the traction energy demand. For this reason, during the production process, the vehicle mass is analysed at each stage, in order to ensure that this does not exceed the optimum weight contemplated.

In the new designs, a balance is also sought between the maximum transport capacity and passenger comfort. Energy savings are also possible by ensuring that the areas dedicated to passenger transport are as large as possible and by optimizing the number of seats per unit.

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Trains free from noise and vibrations
Reduced noise emissions.
Detail of the friction between the wheel and track.

The major sources of train noises are caused by the equipment, rail - wheels and aerodynamics. Apart from its effect on humans, noise can also affect nature, by altering the habitat of animals, and the ecosystems.

In order to reduce noise emissions, both inside and outside the train, the CAF technical team makes an in-depth analysis of the causes and then adopts the most effective measures available to minimize them. Prior calculations and tests, the use of insulating and absorbing materials, aerodynamic designs, studies on the wheel - rail contact and interaction etc.

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Regenerative brake (AER)
Braking energy recovery
Tram at a station

Braking energy recovery is a key aspect of railway network operation, helping to optimize operations and to achieve high efficiency rates. The trains made by CAF are specifically designed to ensure that regenerative braking has priority over the rheostatic and friction braking. In this way, the energy recovered in the braking process is recycled to the catenary and can either be used by another train or returned to the electricity grid.

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Latest generation equipment
For maximum performance
Electronic equipment

The trains made by CAF feature systems to obtain maximum performance from the energy consumed whilst in operation, when accelerating and braking, and even regarding signalling and interlocking. In this respect, the use of high efficiency traction equipment keeps energy losses to a minimum and optimizes consumption.

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Maximum reduction in consumption
Including the train auxiliary equipment
Reduced consumption in auxiliary systems

In order to maximise the reduction in energy consumption, there is a need to adopt comprehensive measures which also contemplate the train auxiliary equipment and the monitoring of the train operation and its state of conservation.

Auxiliary converter

For each project, an analysis of the capacity of the auxiliary converter is made, in order to take stock of all the loads to be powered. This action prevents possible over-sizing which could result in a higher consumption and greater weight than recommended.

Management of energy consumption with the train at standstill

To reduce energy consumption when the train is at a standstill, one of CAF's priority objectives is to pre-define the status of the auxiliary equipment. With individual controls for each car and not for the entire train, it is possible to turn on the equipment in specific units, according to the requirements at any given time. This measure achieves considerable energy savings.

Air conditioning in optimum conditions

The air conditioning equipment consumes a considerable amount of energy during operation. In order to reduce this consumption CAF uses high-performance refrigerants and also adopts measures to optimize the air conditioning conditions inside the train. In order to reduce energy losses caused by heat transfer from the train interior to the train exterior, the train design aims to minimize its thermal conductivity in order to achieve some highly effective insulation.

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Efficient driving of the vehicles and fleet
Minimising energy consumption
Driver's station

The driving mode has a decisive effect on the train energy consumption. The train control system can be used for the real-time calculation to determine the specific performance level required to minimise energy consumption, based on the characteristics and travel time required. This information allows for optimal train driving from an energy point of view.

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Shorter travel times
Greater energy efficiency:
Commuter trains

CAF's technological developments have introduced new advantages for an overall reduction in train energy consumption. Systems such as Integrated Tilting (SIBI), make it possible to travel at higher speeds with no loss of comfort on curves and to cut travel times by 30%.Furthermore, the improved curve negotiation possibilities mean that there is less need to slow down the train at curves, leading to greater energy efficiency.